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Growing

Growing

Nutrition

Nutrition with the next two, pests and diseases, are the three that can cause your biggest limitations within the crop.  Bally et al (1999, p35) states that either excessively low or high levels in nutrients can cause problems that include;

  • Reduced yields
  • Excessive vegetative flushing at the wrong time or at the expense of flowering reducing fruit quality and quantity
  • Nutrient imbalance causing fruit quality issues including; green skin when ripe, jelly seed and internal break down

Nutrients need to be carefully monitored to prevent these issues occurring.  Testing of nutrient levels both in the soil and through leaf sampling is the best method of monitoring your nutrients.  This need to be done at a particular time in the crops cycle, results for these normally takes less than two weeks to get your results back.  Recommendations on what to apply according to your sample results should be made by an accredited person to ensure that other problems are not caused.

Disease

Anthracnose caused by C. gloeosporioides is the major disease in mangoes both pre and post harvest.  Anthracnose is usually associated with high rainfall and humidity and can affect the fruit, flower and leaves (Litz 1997, p257).

Figure 3: Anthracnose on fruit, flower and leaves (DPI NT)

To control this, regular fungicide applications need to be applied from flower initiation through to harvest to minimise the impact this disease can have on your trees and crop.

Other diseases in mangoes according to Bally et al (1999, pp 35-37) include;

  • Stem end rot
  • Mango scab
  • Bacterial black spot
  • Bacterial black blight
  • Powdery mildew

All of these are generally controlled with the same fungicide program used for the control of anthracnose.  Due to this if application timing and coverage is good these other diseases don’t cause big limitations in the crops production.

Pests

According to Penese (2006) there are a number of pests that can affect mangoes.  These are normally categorised into two groups, minor and major depending on the affect they can have on the crops health, yield and quality.  Thresholds are generally set as a guide to ascertain the population of a pest before action is required.  These are normally set at the economical level to where the level of the pest present will cause more damage than the control will cost to apply.  Levels may be different depending on point at which the trees cycle is for example pre or post harvest and the region in which the crop is grown.

  • Mango scale
  • Plant hoppers
  • Flower feeding caterpillars
  • Fruit fly
  • Shoot caterpillar
  • Tip borer

These pests generally require annual control measures and generally will affect the crop more than once in a year.  Thresholds would vary from region to region depending on the population present of the pest within the area.

Minor Pests

  • Thrips
  • Leaf miner
  • Mites
  • Fruit spotting bug
  • Termites
  • Mango seed weevil

Minor pests generally occur in low populations that will not cause great harm or losses to your crop.  These must still be monitored for though, because at stages these pests may reach levels that require control, but generally not often.  The only minor pest that may increase to a major may be the mango seed weevil as this is a pest that can limit export as it is a quarantined pest in some countries.

 

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